Anatomy and physiology of the brain

Picture of the Brain

Some of these are involuntary—you react automatically when you find something funny or upsetting. Nitrogenous waste is Anatomy and physiology of the brain primarily as urea. Myelinated axons transmit nerve signals much faster than unmyelinated axons, so oligodendrocytes accelerate the communication speed of the brain.

If there are several processes, the neuron is a multipolar neuron; because all motor and association neurons are multipolar, this is the most common structural type.

Forming the anterior region of the midbrain, the cerebral peduncles contain many nerve tracts and the substantia nigra. Artificial or synthetic hormones can be made in the lab. Usually this is because the fluid is not circulating properly.

Anatomy and Physiology

The cerebellum helps to control motor functions such as balance, posture, and coordination of complex muscle activities. Found between the pons and the diencephalon, the midbrain can be further subdivided into 2 main regions: A separate study was done on one-day-old infants to see if infants diverted attention differently between the sexes.

Interpretation of sensory input. Microglia act much like white blood cells by attacking and destroying pathogens that invade the brain. Tests of problem-solving ability, short-term memory, and other complex brain functions. A pocket of infection in the brain, usually by bacteria.

Comparing a man and a woman of the same body size, an average difference of grams in brain-mass is present, the man having the bigger and heavier brain. The mammillary bodies, reflex centers involved in olfaction the sense of smell.

It connects the left and right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex, which allows them to communicate with each other. Dreaming during NREM sleep is rare, but memories are still processed and stored during this time.

Any bleeding inside the brain. Most notably, males have a larger amount of white matter in the frontal and temporal perisylvian region, and in the temporal stem and optic radiation, of the left hemisphere, whereas females have a larger amount of gray matter in the superior temporal gyrus, planum temporale, Heschl gyrus, cingulate gyrus, inferior frontal, and central sulci margins, of the left hemisphere.

More specifically, it suggests that: The exception to this are the egg-laying monotremesthe platypus and the echidnas of Australia. The long bones are thin, hollow and very light. The spinal nerves are numbered after nearby vertebrae.

Structural brain differences usually correspond to sexually dimorphic attributes that bring about functional brain differences. The surface cells of the epidermis are modified into horny scales which create a waterproof layer. The tendency to have seizures.

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One very large fiber tract, the corpus callosum, connect the cerbral hemispheres; such fiber tracts are called commisures. Human anatomy can be taught regionally or systemically; that is, respectively, studying anatomy by bodily regions such as the head and chest, or studying by specific systems, such as the nervous or respiratory systems.

The cerebellum also controls the timing and finesse of complex motor actions such as walking, writing, and speech. Additionally, the lateral malleolus of the fibula is attached to the talus by the relatively weak anterior and posterior Fig.

A surgeon drills a hole into the side of the skull to relieve high pressures. Interneurons send signals to motor neurons, which carry signals to muscles and glands.

Anatomy and Physiology: The 3D Human Brain

A number of the more superficial fibers pass over the cuboid to insert on the bases of the lateral three metatarsal bones, thereby forming a tunnel or retinaculum for the peroneus longus tendon.

The brain is surrounded by a layer of tissue called the meninges. Nervous tissue in the brain has a very high metabolic rate due to the sheer number of decisions and processes taking place within the brain at any given time.

More medially, identify the fibroelastic plantar calcaneonavicular spring ligament.Anatomy (Greek anatomē, "dissection") is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

Anatomy is a branch of natural science which deals with the structural organization of living things. It is an old science, having its beginnings in prehistoric times.

Anatomy is inherently tied to developmental biology, embryology, comparative anatomy.

Sex differences in human physiology

Anatomy of the Brain and Spinal Cord: With Special Reference to Mechanism and Function, for Students and Practitioners (Classic Reprint) Nov 17, by Harris E. Santee. Tutorials and quizzes on the anatomy and physiology of the brain, using interactive animations and diagrams.

The brain and spinal cord

Organization of the Cerebrum An introduction to the Cerebrum anatomy explained beautifully in an illustrated and interactive way. Sex differences in human physiology are distinctions of physiological characteristics associated with either male or female humans.

These can be of several types, including direct and indirect. Direct being the direct result of differences prescribed by the Y-chromosome, and indirect being a characteristic influenced indirectly (e.g. hormonally) by the Y-chromosome.

Welcome to, a free educational resource for learning about human anatomy and physiology. Explore the anatomy systems of the human body!

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Anatomy and physiology of the brain
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